Orography Organizes Monsoon Rain
W. Timothy Liu, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Liu et al.  characterized the large-scale seasonal monsoon system driven by ocean-continent contrast, using QuikSCAT and TRMM observations. The high-resolution spacebased data also reveal that the regional distribution of monsoon rain is governed by orography. The mechanism of the local orographic-induced convection is postulated and simulated in numerical experiments by Xie et al. .
Details can be found in the following papers:
Liu, W.T., X. Xie, and W. Tang, 2005: Monsoon, orography, and human influence on Asian rainfall. Proc. First International Symposium on Cloud-prone and Rainy Areas Remote Sensing. Hong Kong Chinese University. (PDF file)
Xie, S.-P., H. Xu, N.H. Saji, Y. Wang, and W.T. Liu, 2006: Role of narrow mountains in large-scale organization of Asian monsson convection. J. Climate, 19, 3420-3429.